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Modafinil belongs to the class of analeptics-drugs that excite the Central nervous system. In the United States and Europe, it is officially used in the treatment of pathological sleepiness caused by narcolepsy. In the CIS countries, Provigil is allowed and used recreationally to improve performance in conditions of sleep deprivation. In Russia, it is included in the list of narcotic drugs and psychotropic drugs subject to control: the drug is not sold in pharmacies, it is not prescribed by doctors. Despite this, its illegal use as a means to increase brain activity during periods of increased stress is growing.
Mechanism of action of Modafinil
Modafinil (2-(diphenylmethyl)- sulfinyl acetamide) it has a strong stimulating effect on the respiratory and vasomotor centers of the medulla oblongata. The drug affects the function of brain cells directly and through a system of neurotransmitters-chemicals that enhance or inhibit the transmission of nerve signals. In the hypothalamus, neuropathy is activated that implements the action of orexins-neurotransmitters responsible for regulating the sleep-wake cycle. Their deficiency is diagnosed in people with narcolepsy. Other mechanisms of action of Modafinil include:
- activation of epinephrine receptors;
- enhancing the effects of histamine and serotonin;
- decreased activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors.
Thus, the drug increases the effect of substances that excite the nervous system and suppresses the function of the inhibitory mediator. Unlike methamphetamines, it does not significantly alter dopamine and serotonin transmission, so it does not cause a euphoric effect. Modafinil is assessed as a psychostimulant with low narcotic potential, non-addictive with a single-use.
Effect of Modafinil on the body
Generic Provigil (Modafinil) increases tone and physical energy, suppressing the need for sleep. At the same time, patients retain or even increase their concentration, RAM, ability to spatial analysis, and solve logical problems. The increase in cognitive functions is most pronounced in individuals with initially reduced intelligence and a low level of education.
After taking Modafinil, motivation, and satisfaction with the work performed increases. Thanks to the activation of serotonin, mood improves, self-confidence appears, depression, anxiety, and irritability are reduced. Many patients note that while taking the drug, they have become more sociable and friendly, ready to interact with people and speak publicly.
Therapeutic use of the drug
According to the instructions, Modafinil is indicated for patients with excessive sleepiness, provoked by narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, or circadian cycle disorders. The most common use of the drug is in the United States, where it is prescribed not only for pathological sleep disorders, but also for sleep-Wake failures in night shift workers, military personnel, and pilots. According to independent surveys, foreign doctors use Modafinil for indications that are not approved in official recommendations and instructions. It is prescribed in the complex therapy of depressive disorders, chronic fatigue syndrome, bipolar affective disorder, cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, myotonic dystrophy, fibromyalgia.
Misuse of the drug
Modafinil is often used by patients without the doctor's knowledge, including in UK. The drug is popular among students and young entrepreneurs. It allows young people to do without sleep or with a minimum amount of it during student sessions, school exams, and work overload. Many people note that while taking Modafinil improves memorization of the material, increases concentration and intelligence.
Among drug users cocaine and methamphetamine addiction Provigil was known as a medicine that restores the normal activity of the brain. Nootropics replace narcotic drugs: it also acts excitingly, but it does not cause strong dependence. When using opioids, Modafinil helps to cope with drowsiness.
In Europe and the United States, doctors prescribe Modafinil only when necessary, as there is a high probability of side effects. The most common reactions are headache (34% of cases) and allergic reactions. The drug increases the level of histamine in the body, which leads to a variety of Allergy symptoms: urticaria, itching, and peeling of the skin swelling of the mucous membranes and soft tissues, Quincke's edema, polymorphic erythema, and other symptoms.
Modafinil increases the risk of nervous system exhaustion. Regular lack of sleep, accompanied by mental and physical exertion, leads to a failure in the regulation system. Patients develop weakness, dizziness, insomnia, and emotional instability. Other possible side effects:
- digestive disorder;
- jaundice of the skin and sclera.
Modafinil allows you to stay awake in the absence of sleep for several days, increases performance, concentration, and short-term memory. The drug has a positive effect on the emotional state, reducing anxiety and depression. Due to its properties, it has been illegally distributed among students and people who are experiencing overload at work. Common side effects of Modafinil include allergic reactions, headaches, nervous exhaustion.
Dr. Wendy Evans-Uhegbu is a graduate of The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, with experience in Connected Health, Medical Technology, Clinical Research, Medical Education, Medical Communications, and Web Design/Development.