Obesity has been known to cause and exacerbate a good number of chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes, stroke, heart diseases, and even some cancers. Before we dive into the nitty-gritty, let’s start with the basics like- How is obesity defined? Is being obese the same as being overweight? How do I know if I’m overweight or obese?
The answers to these can be very vague but in the clinical environment, Body Mass Index (BMI) is used to screen for the two precisely.
Adapted from Business Insider
BMI of 30 or higher: Obese category
BMI of 25 to 29: Overweight category
BMI of 18.5 to 24: Normal
BMI of less than 18.5: Underweight category
What’s your BMI? Find out here
Now let’s have a look at some of the illnesses that have been linked to obesity.
Type 2 Diabetes
Adapted from Science
Obesity is a leading risk factor in the development of type 2 diabetes. Being obese or overweight affects the body’s ability to process sugars efficiently using insulin, thereby causing the (unprocessed) glucose levels in the blood to rise uncontrollably.
Adapted from Healthfit24
A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is shut off, resulting in a lack of oxygen and nutrients supply to the affected brain tissue and subsequent tissue death. Obesity plays a role in the formation of the plaque that blocks the blood vessels supplying the brain.
Coronary Heart Disease
Adapted from National Heart Lung and Blood Institute
Obesity increases the risk of developing coronary heart disease and it also plays a major role in hypertension. Just like strokes, being overweight or obese plays a role in the blockage of the blood vessels (coronary arteries) supplying the heart muscles. Disruption in the blood supply means that no blood is getting to the affected part of the heart, hence no oxygen and no nutrients (these are normally carried in the blood). The affected heart tissue dies and this process is what is known as coronary heart disease.
Adapted from Advocate My Meds
Dyslipidemia is a term used to describe the disarray of the body’s lipid levels. As well as being a disorder on its own, it is also a risk factor in many other illnesses including but coronary heart disease and stroke.
Adapted from Beltre Bariatrics
Being overweight makes you 4-5 times more likely to develop osteoarthritis, especially in the knees. The two conditions are so tightly intertwined that weight loss improves pain symptoms and slows disease progression of osteoarthritis significantly.
Adapted from US Health Works
Being overweight or obese in some people can affect mental health. Undesirable body image could lead to diminished self-confidence, which could, in turn, affect the mood and if persistent, result in depression.
Obstructive Sleep Apnoea
Adapted from Hub Pages
Obesity is also a major contributory factor to sleep apnoea. Weight loss is actually a recommended conservative management strategy for sleep apnoea.
Some Groups of Cancer
Adapted from Cancer Research UK
Breast, gallbladder, kidney, colon, and endometrial cancers have all been linked to obesity in varying degrees.
Featured image: Asian Scientist
Dr. Wendy Evans-Uhegbu is a graduate of The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, with experience in Connected Health, Medical Technology, Clinical Research, Medical Education, Medical Communications, and Web Design/Development. She is a part of the Medics Abroad team with the role of Chief Communications Officer. She is also a Medical Writer at 3D4 Medical and runs a Medical Communications and Children’s books company (ODR Integrated Services/ ODR Books). She is the author of the newly published children’s book series “The Things Around Me”.